Titles of talks and posters presented over the years at the Symposium on Palaeontological Preparation and Conservation (SPPC)

1992, Bristol:

  • Authigenic minerals within vertebrate fossils from the Wealden, Isle of Wight. Jane Clarke.
  • The conservation of the Sedgwick Museum Quaternary Hippopotamus skeleton. Caroline Buttler.
  • Helping with the jigsaw! How preparators can help conservators. Chris Collins.
  • Rubbers, resins and replicating Baryonyx. Lorraine Cornish.

A review of preparation techniques used in the Geology Conservation Lab at Bristol Museum. David Hill.

  • Preparation, art or science? David Hill.
  • Westlothiana: seeking evidence for the earliest amniote. William Lindsay.
  • Preparation of the A303 ophthalmosaur. Richard Twitchett

1994, Le Havre

  • Conservation of a giant Irish Elk skull and antlers for Kendle Museum, an award winning project. Kate Andrew.
  • The Evolution of Wales. Caroline Buttler.
  • Fishes of the Kimmeridge Clay. Steve Etches.
  • Mounting the Rhynchosaurian Stenaulorhynchus or -The Correction of an Anatomical Disaster. Dino Frey and Susanne
  • Preparation for the people. Steve Hutt.
  • Embryonic dinosaurs and their importance. Terry Manning.
  • Objects and Objectives. John Martin
  • Important sites in Western Canada. Richard Twitchett.

1996, University College London:

  • Conserving Crinoids - Problems and Solutions. Chris Collins.
  • Giant Wings in Small Halls or so. Alexandra Anders.
  • The Fayum collection at the Natural History Museum: What Conservation Lessons can be Learned? David Gray
  • The Compsognathus Cast. Peter Griffiths
  • Excavating and Preparing Peloneustes - a Recent Pliosaur Discovery from Oxfordshire. Juliet Hay.
  • Its Fragile? Why not Cast it? - Formalose as a Moulding Medium (followed by a practical demonstration). Susanne Henssen.
  • A Wild Goose: Preparation for the After Life. Angela Milner.
  • Bone Diagenesis: The Early Stages. Christina Nielsen-Marsh.
  • Ethanolamine thioglycollate and Pyrite Decay: Does it Work? Adrian Doyle and Cyn Ring.
  • Mounting lchthyosaurs. The Natural History Museum. Glenys Wass

1997, Derby:


  • Collecting problems in the Kimmeridge Clay. Steve Etches.
  • Modelling a damselfly at a scale of 20:1. Michaela Forthuber.
  • Scymnognathus: how a disarranged skeleton can be a 3D model. Susanne
  • Video and talk - the appeal of reproductions. Susanne Henssen
  • Cracking up. William Lindsay.
  • Building a conservation database. Glenys Wass.


  • Tertiary vertebrate fossils from Bavaria, South Germany. Lissy Biber.
  • Simple tests for a new PVA. Adrian Doyle
  • Model of a hatching hornet on a scale of 50:1. Michaela Forthuber.

1998, Bournemouth

  • Sorting fossils from sediments-practical Workshop, and Discussion. Adrian Brokenshire.
  • The Deeping Elephant - excavation and conservation Alan Dawn.
  • Moving an Elephant. Adrian Doyle.
  • Extracting and preparing fossils-practical workshop. Steve Etches.
  • Casting the recently dead. Michaela Forthuber.
  • Rock cutting in the High Andes: a backpacker's generator, lecture and demonstration. Dino Frey.
  • Myth or Monster the Komodo dragon. David Gray.
  • Attempts on Oilshale Preservation. Sabine Gwosdek.
  • Sediment-transfer preparations with different resins in the Permian of Germany. Jutta Hussen.
  • A new small Theropod Dinosaur from the Isle of Wight. Penny Hutt

1999, Edinburgh:

  • CT and MRI of a mouldic fossil. Neil Clark.
  • 16 museums, 1 man and his computer. Paul Davis.
  • Environment and microclimate. Adrian Doyle.
  • Grasping the past. Michaela Forthuber.
  • David Gray.

2000, Portsmouth:


  • Cleaning fossil material with Lasers. Lorraine Cornish.
  • Managing a barrier film 'microclimate enclosure'. Adrian Doyle.
  • Skeleton in the cupboard: using dermestid beetles for cleaning bones. Michaela Forthuber.
  • One solution to producing a replica of a large specimen on display in the Natural History Museum. David Gray.
  • New technology to reveal the past. Sabine Gwosdek.
  • Dinosaur trackways in Oxfordshire. Juliet Hay.
  • Messel pit: Research excavations in a World Heritage Monument. Norbert Micklich.

2001, York:


  • Relative humidity induced physical responses in fossil material. Adrian Doyle.
  • The amateur's perspective. Steve Etches.
  • Workshop: Colouring casts with powder pigments. Michaela Forthuber.
  • Liopleurodon and pyrite; a case study. David Gray.
  • Exhibiting techniques. Steve Hutt.
  • Caught short in the field - emergency field techniques for the unprepared. Jeff Liston.

2002, Cambridge:


  • My beautiful Laudrette - preparation with tensides. Elizabeth Biber.
  • A Virtual Tour of the Brunswick Museum. Michaela Forthuber.
  • The preparation of a new Iguanodon found in Surrey. David Gray.
  • Megafauna support versus adulteration. Nigel Larkin.
  • Preparation down under! Ian Macadie
  • The making of the geology map of Scotland. Vicen Carrio.


  • Reeling in a big Jurassic fish. Jeff Liston and Dave Martill.
  • What lies beneath the CAT scanner digital images? Part II. The application of the technique. Structures likely to be compatible with a new dinosaur embryo discovery. Roberta Montesdeoca.
  • The re-discovery of a lost holotype Stenopterygius acutirostris - its acquisition and conservation history. Sandra Chapman and Adrian Doyle.

2003, Oxford:


  • Conservation of a Jurassic Marine Reptile. Caroline Buttler.
  • Mechanical preparation techniques: a review of modern equipment. Adrian Doyle.
  • Running noses - lifesize reconstruction of Nasobema lyricum. Michaela Forthuber.
  • The preliminary preparation of a Tendaguru brachiosaur. David Gray.
  • Constructing a diorama: The landscape of north Hesse State about 250 million years ago. Susanne Henssen.
  • Building a model of Psittacosaurus on the basis of a beautifully preserved specimen. Bernd Herkner.
  • Conservation of proboscidean tusks. Nigel Larkin.
  • Old glue and old bones, or how the Leeds collection was stuck together. Sarah Finney and Leslie Noè.
  • Virtual fossils: 3D digital reconstructions from serial sections. Derek E G Briggs.


  • Long term preventive conservation of the Shropshire County Museum Service geological collections - the geological elements of the Ludlow Museum resource Centre. Kate Andrew.
  • A review of modern palaeontological preparation equipment.
  • S. Airflow S1 airbrasive machine. Eric Milsom.
  • Deep in Grube Messel. Eric Milsom.
  • Base camp to Summit Team. Eric Milsom.
  • From Dragons to Sparrows: The media and the evolution of the dinosaur image. Luis Rey.
  • Palaeoart exhibition. Bob Nicholls.

2004, Leicester:


  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Palaeontology. Adrian Doyle.
  • Improving consolidant effectiveness: A capillary based method for evaluating and monitoring consolidant concentration. Tim J. Fedak.
  • A new preparation tool - the Split-V. James Fletcher.
  • Curation history and mineralisation of a highly degraded pyrite fossil collection. Emily Hodgkinson.
  • The dismantling and cleaning of the Sedgwick Museums Iguanodon. Sarah Finney and Leslie Noè.


  • The history and preparation of the enigmatic dinosaur Hylaeosaurus armatus BMNH R 3375. Sandra Chapman and David Gray.
  • Mineralisation of highly degraded pyrite fossil collection. Susan Martin

2005, London:

  • The Blaschka Glass Models - The Conservation Issues. Bolton.
  • Cleaning Natural History Material with Lasers. Lorraine Cornish.
  • Preventive Conservation; barrier films, anoxia and fossils. Adrian Doyle.
  • Lifesize Reconstruction of Longisquama insignis. Michaela Forthuber
  • A Life of Grime: Excavating 20th Century Deposits. Nigel Larkin.
  • And here's one I prepared earlier. Moore
  • A Pliosaur Travels: The Transport and Packaging of a Unique Cretaceous Marine Reptile from Northern South America. Leslie Noè.


  • Palaeoart exhibition. Luis Rey.
  • Important plesiosaurs in the National Museum of Ireland (Natural History). Adam Smith.
  • Analysis of spheniscid tarsometatarsus and humerus morphological variability using DAISY automated digital image recognition. Stig Walsh.
  • Finding the Minimum Sample Richness (MSR) for multivariate analyses: implications for palaeoecology. Michael Bedward.
  • A re-description of the postcranial skeleton of the primitive stegosaur Huayangosaurus taibai. Susie Maidment.
  • Palaeoart exhibition. Bob Nicholls.
  • Lured by the rings: growth structures in Leedsichthys. Jeff Liston.
  • Skull evolution in the Rhynchocephalia (Diapsida: Lepidosauria). Jones.
  • Kimmeridge fishes. Steve Etches.

2006, Paris:

  • Finding the Minimum Sample Richness (MSR) for multivariate analyses: implications for palaeoecology. Michael Bedward.

2007, Glasgow:

  • Creating the vertebrate palaeontological displays for the Kelvingrove Museum. John-Paul Sumner.
  • Historical gluemaking, and implications for conservation.
  • The rather naive idea of forming a museum on the Jurassic Coast. Steve Etches.
  • Fake Rock, Real sand: The making of the exhibition ‘Sahara - Living Desert'’. Michaela Forthuber.
  • The virtual and physical preparation of the Collard Plesiosaur. Nigel Larkin.
  • Palaeontological preservation with 21st century documentation: using photogrammetry to produce highly detailed 3D image models.  Neffra Matthews
  • The Good, The Bad and the Ugly: Preparation from the Wild West. Cindy Howells.
  • Emergency remedial conservation of homeless mammoth material. Emma Nicholls.

2008, Dublin.


  • A preliminary investigation into the removal and remedial conservation of labels from fossil specimens. Felicity Bolton.
  • Environmental damage to palaeontological specimens. Ana Citores.
  • Blood, sweat and scars for life- the complications of comparative shark material. Emma Nicholls.
  • A Triceratops skull in Birmingham at 50 and 100: discovered 1908, transported 1958. Leslie Noè.
  • The effectiveness of Synocryl 9123s during the acid preparation process. Melissa Schiele.
  • Fossil preparation skills: available information for both ‘amateur’ and pro. Remmert Schouten.
  • The pilot conservation of two Blaschka glass models of micro-organisms. Liesa Stertz.


  • A new suit for the Dublin pliosaur.

2009, Bristol (SVP, SVPCA and SPPC meeting):

Adhesives, choice and reason:

Presentations by Velson Horie, Amy Davidson, Chris Collins, Nigel Larkin, Suzanne Henssen and Dick Mol.

2010, Cambridge:


  • Infacol – if it’s good enough for babies, it’s good enough for ammonites. Christian Baars.
  • The joy of steel: How to master your awkward fossil in the field. Nigel Larkin.
  • Mechanical and chemical preparation methods used on the lower Eocene cementstone concretions from the Mo-Clay of northern Denmark. Frank Osbaeck.


  • Preservation potential of elasmobranchs. Trine Sørensen.

2011, Lyme Regis:


  • Bringing sea dragons back to life: 200 years on from Anning, Conybeare and De La Beche. Mark Evans.
  • Accessing palaeontology in a local museum. Phil Hadland.
  • The UK continental shelf on the move: transferring two major core sample collections. Mike Howe.
  • Resourcing palaeontological collection care in a time of crisis: the legacy of the Earth Science Review 20 years on. Jeff Liston.
  • How long? Preparation of the Weymouth Bay pliosaur. Lu Allington Jones
  • Acid preparation of a pond turtle from the Eocene Mo clay formation of northern Denmark. Frank Osbaeck.
  • Simplifying extraction and cross sectioning of microfossils in unlithified sediment. Martin Abrahamsson
  • The Bristol Dinosaur Project – preparation methods. Pedro Viegas.


  • Building conservation grade support systems for the long-term storage of fossil vertebrates. Mark Graham

2012, Oxford:


  • The Dorset Fossil Code database. Richard Forrest.
  • Virtual palaeontology: an introduction. Russell Garwood


  • Bad Influence - Acetic Acid Preparation of a Pterosaur in Metamorphosed Limestone. Lu Allington Jones.
  • Going to The Other Side– Acid Preparation of Dinosaur Bones from Atherfield Bay. Lu Allington Jones.
  • Mechanical Preparation of Oligocene Fishes. Mark Graham

2013, Edinburgh:


  • Special care for historical collections – The Timor collection at Naturalis Biodiversity centre (the Netherlands). Natasja den Ouden.
  • The use of expansive demolition agents for the extraction of large and delicate dinosaur fossils from the Upper Cretaceous of South-central Pyrenees (Catalonia, Europe). Galobart Lorente.
  • Estimating the volumes and masses of big plaster field jackets. Donald Henderson.
  • Why look at fossils in infra-red? Nigel Larkin.
  • ‘King Long Dan’: Excavation, export and experience. Jeff Liston.
  • The Trento experience: Building life-size models of extinct species and shipping them 1,000 miles to Italy. Bob Nicholls.
  • The new palaeobiology store at National Museums Scotland. Andrew Ross


  • Pros and cons of restoration. Vicen Carrió
  • Storage enhancement of the Palaeontological collection at Facultad de Ciencias (Uruguay): Quaternary vertebrates make the first move. Alejandra Rojas. 

2014, York:


  • Opening up the dipnoan brain: new insights from the cranial endocast of Dipterus valenciennesi. Tom Challands.
  • Challenges encountered during the preparation by acid-resin transfer of fossil fish from Monte Bolca, Italy. Mark Graham.
  • Evolutionary history of antlers in Cervidae (Ruminantia, Artiodactyla, Mammalia). Nicola Heckeberg.
  • GB/3D fossil types online – not only the largest collection of 3D digital fossils, but also of major format, schema and vocabulary conundrums. Mike Howe.
  • Resourcing palaeontological collection care in a time of crisis: The legacy of the Earth Science Review twenty years on. Jeff Liston.
  • Preparation of Ardiolus sp? From the Eocene Mo clay in Denmark: New approaches in acid preparation. Frank Osbaeck.
  • The Upper Jurassic marine reptiles from Spitzbergen: from field conservation to laboratory preparation. Aubrey Roberts.


  • A tale of two Mysticeti. Nigel Larkin
  • Using infrared thermal imaging as a collections management tool. Nigel Larkin.
  • The NHM Kimmeridge Clay Ichthyosaur Collection Project. Sandra Chapman.

2015, Southampton:

  • Fossils, Footprints and fakes. Mark Graham.
  • A brief history of the best collection of fossil fish in the world ‘probably’. Emma Bernard.
  • ‘Breaking bad’ bone beds: processing the Downton Bone Bed. Luke Hauser.
  • Moulding dinosaur tracks on the banks of the St. Mary River in southwestern Alberta. Donald Henderson.
  • Leviathan Rising: A new collections curation initiative from the Star Pit dig. Jeff Liston.
  • Preparation of a uniquely preserved turtle from the early Eocene Mo clay formation of northern Denmark. Frank Osbaeck.

2016, Liverpool:


  • Psycho knives and Withers wedges – Excavating a plesiosaur. Richard Forrest.
  • Moulding, casting and laser scanning of dinosaur trackways from the Late Cretaceous of Southern Alberta, Canada. Donald Henderson.
  • Part seen, part remembered: the preparation, conservation and curatorial challenges of virtually raising Leviathan. Jeff Liston.
  • Preparation of vertebrate fossils from the Miocene clay pit in Gram, Denmark. Frank Osbaeck
  • A documentation mystification. Emma Nicholls.


  • A ton of trouble: cleaning, conserving and mounting a large 300 million year old giant clubmoss plant fossil from north Wales for display. Nigel Larkin & Caroline Buttler.
  • The discovery in a museum collection of the largest known skeleton of Ichthyosaurus in the world and its re-display, including 3D printing missing bones. Nigel Larkin, Dean Lomax, Steven Dey, Luanne Meehitiyia & Laura Porro.
  • Journal of Palaeontological techniques: a free, open access journal exchanging knowledge between technicians, preparators and researchers. Tschopp. 

2017, Birmingham:


  • Project airless: addressing the problem of pyrite oxidation in a large fossil collection. Kieran Miles.
  • Replicating the 1.8m long skull of Pliosaurus carpenteri for display. Nigel Larkin & Steven Dey.
  • The remedial conservation and support jacketing of the neotype of the dinosaur Massospondylus carinatus. Mark Graham
  • Finding and collecting a dinosaur in an open pit mine - the Fort McMurray nodosaur. Donald Henderson.
  • Blood, sweat and vinegar: acetic acid preparation of cetacean fossils yields exceptional results. Tim Ziegler.


  • Recording the uncollectable with low cost low tech: Successful photogrammetry in the field using a mobile phone to create digital 3D models. Nigel Larkin & Steven Dey.

2018, Manchester:

  • The Biddulph Grange geology gallery project: restoring a unique display from 1862 that encapsulates an important stage in the history of the development of geological thinking. Nigel Larkin.
  • From China to Nottingham: the making of Dinosaurs of China. Adam Smith.
  • Using theatre skills in a science exhibition: Dinosaurs of China in Nottingham. Martin Nunn.
  • Challenging preparation of a plesiosaur skeleton from a stressed nodule. Richard Forrest.
  • The air-abrasive technique: re-evaluation of its use in fossil preparation. Mark Graham.
  • Rescuing an early Cretaceous plesiosaur from an active tar sand mine. Donald Henderson.
  • An introduction to ‘The Association for Materials and Methods in Palaeontology’ (AMMP) Meeting. Vicen Carrio.

2019, Isle of Wight:

  • Controlled excsiccation of fossilised remains ion waterlogged marl: Slowly, slowly, dryee squiddie. Lu Allington-Jones
  • Palaeontological preparation facilities in UK universities: The north south divide? Tom Challands.
  • A combination of air abrasion and ultrasonic preparation reveals fine details ahead of scanning electron microscopy in fossil ophiuroids. Mark Graham.
  • Cold climate collection of Cretaceous creatures in Canada. Donald Henderson.
  • 13 years of preparing Danish fossils, a retrospective. Frank Osbaeck.
  • A new technique for sampling plant debris beds from the Early Cretaceous Wealden Group of southern England. Simon Penn.